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Stockholm Declaration, 1972

This is the grandmother convention containing a non-binding statement of principles, "to inspire and guide the peoples of the world in the preservation and enhancement of the human environment."

Rio Declaration

The nations meeting at the UNCED adopted a set of guidelines that define the right of people to their environment and their responsibilities to safeguard the environment.

Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a global plan of action that was adopted by nations at the UNCED as a “global partnership” in order to fulfill basic needs, improve living standards for all, better protect and manage ecosystems and lead to a safe and more prosperous future. The primary responsibility for fulfilling Agenda 21 was placed on the Governments.

Convention on Biological Diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is one of the results of the UNCED. It deals with issues relating to environmental law and policy making in the context of sustainable development. The objective of the CBD is the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources including by appropriate access to genetic resources, and appropriate transfer of relevant technologies , and taking into account all rights over these resources and technologies and by appropriate funding.

Kyoto Protocol

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change was one of the results of the UNCED. It was passed in order to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at safe level within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.

Millennium Declaration

The Millennium Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly in 2000 in order to reaffirm the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, establish a just and long lasting peace all over the world, and ensure that globalization becomes a positive force for all the world’s people.

WSSD Plan of Implementation

The WSSD Plan of Implementation is the result of the World Summit on Sustainable development held in Johannesburg in 2002, 10 years after the UNCED. The WSSD recognizes that the three aims of sustainable development are poverty eradication, achieving sustainable patterns of production and consumption and protecting the base of natural resources. It emphasizes the importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships as an important means of achieving sustainable development.

Doha Declaration

The Doha Declaration recognized the linkage between trade liberalization, economic growth and sustainable development. The declaration is premised on the belief that safeguarding an open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, and acting for the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development can and must be mutually supportive.

Monterrey Consensus  

The Monterrey Consensus is a result of the UN Convention on Financing for Development. The consensus expresses concern about current estimates indicating dramatic shortfalls in resources necessary to achieve economic and social development.   and emphasizes the need for tapping all available financing resources and increasing effective use of these resources.

Guidelines for Consumer Protection  

The guidelines provide a framework for Governments, particularly those of developing countries, to use in elaborating consumer protection policies and legislation. They are also intended to encourage international co-operation in this field.

Guiding principles for partnerships for sustainable development (Type II partnerships) (pdf)

These principles have been designed to guide the specific commitments by various partners intended to contribute to and reinforce the implementation of the outcomes of the intergovernmental negotiations of the WSSD

DECLARATION by the Environment Ministers of the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) (pdf)

This declaration was the result of the 5th Ministerial Conference of the Environment for Europe Process held in Kyiv, Ukraine in May 2003.

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